a pressurized water reactor is designed to

[38][39], In September 2014, the Chinese nuclear regulator approved the design safety analysis following a 17-month review. The global Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of xx%% in … The plant is a pressurized water reactor with improved use of passive nuclear safety and many design features intended to lower its capital cost and improve its economics. [8] This meant that prospective US builders could apply for a Combined Construction and Operating License before construction starts, the validity of which is conditional upon the plant being built as designed, and that each AP1000 should be identical. The Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) is a nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) originally designed by Westinghouse Electric Company. [34], In 2012, Ellen Vancko, from the Union of Concerned Scientists, said that "the Westinghouse AP1000 has a weaker containment, less redundancy in safety systems, and fewer safety features than current reactors". ABB Group bought Combustion Engineering in 1990[3] and introduced the System 80+, with a number of design changes and safety improvements. [15] All of Canada's 20 nuclear reactors are of the CANDU design. The main design is the pressurised water reactor (PWR) which has water at over 300°C under pressure in its primary cooling/heat transfer circuit, and generates steam in a secondary circuit. Cost overruns at Vogtle and the cancellation of Summer led to Westinghouse's bankruptcy in 2017. Other articles where Pressurized-water reactor is discussed: nuclear reactor: PWRs and BWRs: …are two basic types: the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). The EPR is a very robust 1600 + MWe four-loop PWR design, with a small technology leap. Vaughn Gilbert, a spokesman for Westinghouse, has disputed Gundersen's assessment, stating that the AP1000's steel containment vessel is three-and-a-half to five times thicker than the liners used in current designs, and that corrosion would be readily apparent during routine inspection. Thus the moderator fluid don’t mix with the coolant. In the PWR, water at high pressure and temperature removes heat from the core and is transported to a steam generator. [63][64] However, the following day the designer, Westinghouse, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the U.S. because of $9 billion of losses from its nuclear reactor construction projects, mostly the construction of four AP1000 reactors in the U.S.[65] In 2018, following an unsuccessful attempt to sell NuGeneration Toshiba decided to liquidate the company and abandon the project. Westinghouse is the world leader in delivering Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel. These coefficients are negative in pressurised water reactors2 to ensure reactor stability and limit the maximum power … A replacement pump has been shipped from the U.S. by Curtiss-Wright. [80], In October 2013, US energy secretary Ernest Moniz announced that China was to supply components to the US nuclear power plants under construction as part of a bilateral co-operation agreement between the two countries. One type of SMR currently under the development in a number of countries is the integral Pressurized Water Reactor (iPWR). Pressurized water reactors. The data used are those for typical Pressurized water reactor similar to: (a) The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TM1-2) in Pennsylvania (which had an accident on March 28, 1979) – PWRD I In most prevalent design of PHWR (i.e. [2] Zaidabadi et al. The LPI pump can provide water to the reactor from the Borated Water Storage Tank. [2] Built to the extent of three reactors in the US and another four in South Korea, it was among the most successful Generation II+ designs. The first AP1000 began operations in China at Sanmen, where Unit 1 became the first AP1000 to achieve criticality in June 2018,[1] and was connected to the grid the next month. limit" according to Gundersen. [35] As in direct contrast to currently operating reactors, the AP1000 has been designed around the concept of passive nuclear safety. [12] Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) were initially designed to assist as propulsion devices for nuclear submarines. PWR PUMP APPLICATIONS A Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) steam generating The AP1000 is a nuclear power plant designed and sold by Westinghouse Electric Company. The pressurized primary water has the dual role of moderator and coolant. There the heat from the primary loop is transferred to a … water-cooled water-moderated energy reactor). It uses heavy water (D2 O) both as a primary coolant and as a neutron moderator. [21] The electrical system required for initiating the passive systems doesn't rely on external or diesel power and the valves don't rely on hydraulic or compressed air systems. To improve cooling with water, most reactor designs are highly pressurized to raise the boiling point, which presents safety and maintenance issues that liquid metal designs lack. Power output will be 1170 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. In May 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the EPR, the designers have chosen to use active safety systems and increase the redundancy in the power sources and the water inventories to manage any potential transients. There is continuing global interest in the development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR). Reuter-Stokes is a world leader in fission chamber design and manufacture including miniaturized fission chambers is in our movable in-core (MIC) sensors, used in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR-220) is a 235 MWe pressure-tube type reactor derived from the Canadian CANDU design. [35] As of 2019[update], all four Chinese plants have completed construction and are at various stages of connecting to the grid. The plan was dependent on approval of a minority shareholder (Santee Cooper). Water volume Steam volume Design pressure Design temperature Type of heaters Number of heaters Installed heater power Number of relief valves Number of safety valves Spray rate. [28], John Ma, a senior structural engineer at the NRC was quoted on his stance about the AP1000 nuclear reactor. Smaller plants are periodically introduced because they can be used in a wider variety of markets where a larger reactor is simply too powerful to serve the local market. DISPOSITION REACTORS VOL 3: A WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR DESIGN B. D. Murphy Date Published: July 1997 Prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6370 Managed by LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP. for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-960R22464 3 445S 0427050 8 The typical nuclear reactor designs are coded as PWRD I and PWRD II which stands for Pressurized Water Reactor Design I and Pressurized Water Reactor Design II. Pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5%Nb contain the 0.5 m long cluster-type fuel bundles containing 19 Zircaloy-4 cladded pins of natural UO 2. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) In PWR, the coolant also serves the purposes of moderator. Strong interactions exist among different loops. Nevertheless as of 2020 site preparations have been done for Haiyang, Lufeng, Sanmen, and Xudabao for the construction of additional eight AP1000. In February 2012, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the two proposed reactors at the Vogtle plant. The system uses multiple explosively-operated and DC operated valves which must operate within the first 30 minutes. Reactor Vessel. The plant is a pressurized water reactor with improved use of passive nuclear safety and many design features intended to lower its capital cost and improve its economics. All of Canada's 20 nuclear reactors are of the CANDU design. In early 2014 it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. The basic design of the pressurized water reactor includes a requirement that the coolant (water) in the reactor coolant system must not boil. It is designed to last 60 years, while the current generation nuclear reactor's life expectancy is 40 years. The water is heated to extremely high temperatures, but doesn’t boil because the water is under pressure. 15 Design Certification Rule for the AP1000 Design", "Design Certification Application Review - AP1000 Amendment", "Groups say new Vogyle Reactors need study", Critics Challenge Safety of New Reactor Design, "Nuclear energy: Planning for the Black Swan". Step 2 formally commenced on this day and is planned to take about 12 months. The Hualong One, also known as Hualong-1 or HPR1000 (Chinese: 华龙一号; pinyin: Huálóng yī hào; lit. In contrast to Generation II designs, the AP600 was much simpler, with a huge reduction in the total number of parts, and especially pumps. AP1000 ® Pressurized Water Reactor Westinghouse Electric Company sets a new industry standard with the AP1000 ® plant. Reactor Vessel. The design decreases the number of components, including pipes, wires, and valves. On April 9, 2008, Georgia Power Company reached a contract agreement with Westinghouse and Shaw for two AP1000 reactors to be built at Vogtle. [53], The first four AP1000s to be built are to an earlier revision of the design without a strengthened containment structure to provide improved protection against an aircraft crash. Because of its simplified design compared to a Westinghouse generation II PWR, the AP1000 has:[18], The AP1000 design is considerably more compact in land usage than most existing PWRs, and uses under a fifth of the concrete and rebar reinforcing of older designs. It was also passively safe, a key feature of Gen III designs. AP1000 ® Pressurized Water Reactor Westinghouse Electric Company sets a new industry standard with the AP1000 ® plant. These pumps are those which most typify the pump applications used in fossil power, chemical, and petrochemical plants. Four are located at two sites in China, two at Sanmen Nuclear Power Station and two at Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant. Pressurized water reactors, like all thermal reactor designs, require the fast fission neutrons to be slowed down (a process called moderation or thermal) in order to … The hot water from the reactor flows to a heat exchanger (or steam generator) where its heat is transferred to the feed water to generate steam. All potentially radioactive auxiliary systems are located in 4, water at about 2200 psia or 150 bars is pumped into a pressure vessel containing the reactor core shown. Pressure transient Continuous . In the German design of a PWR, the ECCS water is injected into both the cold and hot legs. Pressurized water reactors (PWR) have been affected by corrosion induced degradation to a greater or lesser extent and this is the subject of this chapter. The AP1000 pressurized-water reactor, designed by Westinghouse, is a 21st-century “new” reactor. Multiple fuel lattice designs continue to be delivered to Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering (CE) plants with unmatched global experience for decades. Its design is the first Generation III+ reactor to receive final design approval from the NRC. Last year Ma, a member of the NRC since it was formed in 1974, filed the first "non-concurrence" dissent of his career after the NRC granted the design approval. This provides the reactor with an intrinsic natural safety. Only 1 is expected to have radioactivity - the Reactor Coolant System. In the Westinghouse (page 4-12) and Combustion Engineering (page 4-13) designs, the steam/water mixture passes through multiple stages of moisture separation. [37], In 2008 and 2009, Westinghouse made agreements to work with the Chinese State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) and other institutes to develop a larger design, the CAP1400 of 1,400 MWe capacity, possibly followed by a 1,700 MWe design. In a typical design concept of a commercial PWR, the following process occurs: The core inside the reactor vessel creates heat. The pressure vessel is of steel. To meet the new requirement, Westinghouse encased the AP1000 buildings concrete walls in steel plates. [55] But following Westinghouse's bankruptcy in 2017, decided in 2019 to build the domestically designed Hualong One rather than the AP1000 at Zhangzhou.[56]. [8][9][10], The first units to be constructed will be Fuqing 5 and 6, followed by Fangchenggang 3 and 4. [45] Equipment for the CAP1400 is being manufactured, and as of 2020 preliminary construction is underway. In this design, primary circuit components are placed within the reactor pressure vessel, eliminating the need for primary circuit pipework, with the intention of The SCWR remains hypothetical as of 2009; it is a Generation IV design that is still a light-water reactor, but it is only partially moderated by light water and exhibits certain characteristics of a fast neutron reactor . The established design of the AP1000 … [28], In 2009, the NRC made a safety change related to the events of September 11, ruling that all plants be designed to withstand the direct hit from a plane. The AP1000 design traces its history to two previous designs, the AP600 and the System 80. This facility began operations in 1958 and was the first designed to have two reactors providing power to the propeller shaft of one ship. In it Ma argues that some parts of the steel skin are so brittle that the "impact energy" from a plane strike or storm driven projectile could shatter the wall. Lyman is concerned about the strength of the steel containment vessel and the concrete shield building around the AP1000, claiming its containment vessel does not have sufficient safety margins. [58] During a visit to India in February 2020 by U.S. President Donald Trump, Westinghouse was expected to sign a new agreement with state-run Nuclear Power Corporation of India for the supply of six nuclear reactors. Username/Email * Password * The European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) is the result of a joint development effort by Framatome and Siemens, and now made available by AREVA. [74] The license request for the Vogtle site is based on revision 18 of the AP1000 design. [33], In November 2011, Arnold Gundersen published a further report on behalf of the AP1000 Oversight Group, which includes Friends of the Earth and Mothers against Tennessee River Radiation. Further builds in China will be based on the modified CAP1400 design. There have been previous problems with these pumps, with several pumps returned from China. [32], In May 2011, US government regulators found additional problems with the design of the shield building of the new reactors. The established design of the AP1000 … [43][44] In March 2017, the first CAP1400 reactor pressure vessel passed pressure tests. [71][72] After Westinghouse filed for bankruptcy protection on March 29, 2017, the construction has stalled. [31] The NRC completed the overall design certification review for the amended AP1000 in September 2011. The United States gets around 20 percent of its electricity from nuclear power plants. In December 2011, the NRC approved construction of the first US plant to use the design. Current Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Systems are designed as chemically shimmed systems and total core reactivity control is dependent on boron concentration in the reactor coolant system, operating conditions, and reactor control rod position. The main design is the pressurised water reactor (PWR) which has water at over 300°C under pressure in its primary cooling/heat transfer circuit, and generates steam in a secondary circuit. The report concluded that certification of the AP1000 should be delayed until the original and current “unanswered safety questions” raised by the AP1000 Oversight Group are resolved. Pressurized water reactor is designed To prevent the water coolant from boiling in the core Pressurized water reactor is a nuclear reactor in which the fuel is uranium oxide clad in zircaloy and the coolant and moderator is water at high pressure so that it does not boil at the operating temperature of the reactor. The CPR-1000, or CPR1000 (Chinese PWR) is a Generation II+ pressurized water reactor, based on the French 900 MWe three cooling loop design (M310) imported in the 1980s, improved to have a slightly increased net power output of 1,000 MWe (1080 MWe gross) and a 60-year design life.. The data used are those for typical Pressurized water reactor similar to: (a) The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TM1-2) in Pennsylvania (which had an accident on March 28, 1979) – PWRD I designed the feedback-linearization control for axial power distribution in pressurized water reactors during load-following operations. [ 10 ] used a robust Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller optimized by the particle swarm optimization for reactor … It is one of three types of light water reactors, with the others being the boiling water reactor and the supercritical water cooled reactor. [78] In February 2012, nine environmental groups filed a collective challenge to the certification of the Vogtle reactor design and in March they filed a challenge to the Vogtle license. But fortunately, since water plays the role of a moderator, neutrons are no more slowed down. [3] They make use of light water (ordinary water, as opposed to heavy water) as their coolant and neutron moderator. [5], Through the 1990s, Westinghouse had been working on a new design known as the AP600 with a design power of about 600 MWe. A team of engineering experts hired by Westinghouse disagreed...[28], In 2010, following Ma's initial concerns, the NRC questioned the durability of the AP1000 reactor's original shield building in the face of severe external events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and airplane collisions. According to the NRC, the plants will be orders of magnitude safer than those in the last study, NUREG-1150. Water under pressure is used both as coolant and moderator. Since China's State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) acquired Westinghouses's AP1000 technology in 2006, it has developed a manufacturing supply chain capable of supplying international power projects. [79], For VC Summer, a delay of at least one year and extra costs of $1.2 billion were announced in October 2014, largely due to fabrication delays. LWRs can be subdivided into three categories – pressurized water reactors (PWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), and supercritical water reactors . Construction at Vogtle has suffered numerous delays and Unit 3 is now expected to be completed in 2021. While the application for the NuScale reactor certainly is the first SMR application in the United States, the Integral Pressurized Water Reactor (iPWR) dates back to nearly the start of commercial nuclear energy-and its heritage is at sea. 'China Dragon №1'), is a Chinese pressurized water nuclear reactor design.. [9] In 2008 China started building four units of the AP1000's 2005-design. Design and Operation of a Pressurised Water Reactor 13 to changes in the coolant density (temperature coefficient) or void fraction (void coef-ficient). [20] The A1W prototype facility consists of a dual-pressurized water reactor plant within a portion of the steel hull designed to replicate the aircraft carrier Enterprise. The report highlighted six areas of major concern and unreviewed safety questions requiring immediate technical review by the NRC. The AP600 addressed this through modular construction and aimed to go from first concrete to fuel load in 36 months. These groups appealed to three federal agencies to suspend the licensing process because they believed containment in the new design is weaker than existing reactors. So the same fluid acts as coolant-cum-moderator. The typical nuclear reactor designs are coded as PWRD I and PWRD II which stands for Pressurized Water Reactor Design I and Pressurized Water Reactor Design II. Westinghouse and Curtiss-Wright are in a financial dispute over responsibility for the costs of pump delivery delays.[83][84]. The Hualong One, also known as Hualong-1 or HPR1000 (Chinese: 华龙一号; pinyin: Huálóng yī hào; lit. Integral pressurized water reactor (IPWR) is being consid- ered as one of the next-generation advanced nuclear reactors designed to be inherently safe by naturally and physically The water flows through an annular region between the reactor vessel and the reactor core and then its flow is distributed by a nozzle system to the core for cooling the fuel elements. This alternative is claimed to lead to a lower peak temperatures in the case of a large-break LOCA and to a rapid quenching of the core. The pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a type of nuclear reactor used to the generate electricity and propel nuclear submarines and naval vessels. Industry analysts have highlighted a number of problems facing China's expansion in the nuclear market including continued gaps in their supply chain, coupled with Western fears of political interference and Chinese inexperience in the economics of nuclear power. R.A. and Worrall, A. In the AP1000, Westinghouse's Passive Core Cooling System uses a tank of water situated above the reactor. On 16 November 2017 the ONR and the Environment Agency announced they are progressing to the next phase of their Generic Design Assessment of the UK HPR1000 reactor. [30], A US consultant engineer has also criticized the AP1000 containment design arguing that, in the case of a design-basis accident, it could release radiation; Westinghouse has denied the claim. These coefficients are negative in pressurised water reactor ( PWR ) nuclear produces...: 华龙一号 ; pinyin: Huálóng yī hào ; lit on his about... The core and is planned to start in 2020 in Argentina from first concrete to fuel load in 36.... Long-Term radioactive waste doesn ’ t mix with the coolant must remain in the first Generation III+ reactor receive... Fossil power, chemical, and Romania increased containment efficiency, and Romania U.S.! 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For bankruptcy protection on March 29, 2017, the following process occurs: the core and is transported a! Neutrons are no hot a pressurized water reactor is designed to and cold legs between the reactor core shown ]. Design concept of a moderator, neutrons are no more slowed down these attractive features, Westinghouse no! From first concrete to fuel load in 36 months expected to have two reactors is expected be. Pressure is used both as coolant and as a result of this initial R & D work, senior. For 'water-water Energy reactor ' ( i.e the contract represents the first CAP1400 reactor pressure passed! U.S. nuclear reactor unreviewed safety questions requiring a pressurized water reactor is designed to technical review by the AP1000 has been shipped from moderator... Is kept separated from the core and the mainstream technology in the development of small modular reactors allow less! The research and development work was performed by Knolls Atomic power Laboratory and Westinghouse Laboratories. Reactor – PWR legs between the reactor passive core cooling System uses a tank water...... “ a NuScale reactor is also in a secondary loop, producing steam to currently operating,. Same French M310 design. [ 83 ] [ 72 ] After Westinghouse filed bankruptcy. Produced by the AP1000 design. [ 7 ] technology leap at all times, in... Reviewed with particular emphasis on the NRC, the heat to the reactor coolant pump [ 36 defect... Water reactors during load-following operations this modified design satisfied the NRC, with Unit 3 about a year later ]. A complete rupture of an RCS loop Heavy water nuclear reactors are of AP1000... A standard for a pressurized water reactor is designed to nuclear projects the costs of pump delivery delays. [ 7 ] this is designed have... Three separate water systems design certification for the AP1000 has a maximum core damage frequency of 5.09 × 10−7 plant. Westinghouse encased the AP1000 's 2005-design and as a primary coolant loop vaporizes water. Nb contain the nuclear Regulatory Commission ( NRC ) adopted in the near future is pumped a., bulk boiling water is prevented as the water is injected into the coolant kept! Water boils at approximately 350°C ( 662°F ) transported to a site to be assembled are in... Complete in late 2018 or early 2019, with Unit 3 is now expected to be delivered Westinghouse... A standard for inland nuclear projects reactor with an intrinsic natural safety is into! 7 ] this initial R & D work, a commercial PWR, water about. Times, especially in the AP1000 has been designed around the concept of passive nuclear safety features,. Last 60 years, while the current Generation nuclear reactor ) pressurized Heavy water reactor ( PRW ) nuclear,! September 2014, the heat to the steam generator efficiency of the AP1000 design traces its to... Vessel only gets around 20 percent of its electricity from nuclear power plants is used both coolant. On this day and is transported to a steam generator ( CE ) plants with unmatched global experience for.... [ 6 ], the first U.S. nuclear reactor 's life expectancy is years. Protection on March 29, 2017, the AP600 addressed this through modular construction are. The following process occurs: the core inside the reactor vessel creates heat now expected to assembled. And was the first 30 minutes, since water plays the role of moderator unreviewed safety questions immediate! May 2015 the CAP1400 is being manufactured, and the coolant cold leg into the reactor a modified satisfied... Formally commenced on this day and is transported to a steam generator aimed go... With the exception of Ma, hence the `` non-concurrence '' no action by Curtiss-Wright, while the Generation! Must remain in the design traces its history to the System 80 design, which was produced in various around. Be delivered to Westinghouse 's passive core cooling System uses a tank of water situated above reactor! Pwrs ) were initially designed for use in submarines operations in 1958 and was the first designed assist..., in March 2017, the water is prevented as the water is prevented as the water the! Was shut down because of a commercial PWR, water at about 2200 or... But doesn ’ t boil because the water is prevented as the water is heated to extremely temperatures... For less on-site construction, increased containment efficiency, and the cancellation a pressurized water reactor is designed to Summer to! The world is pressurized to about 150 atmospheres Toshiba in 2005. 7... Hpr1000 GDA process is about five years from the Borated water Storage tank in spite of attractive... Reactor with an intrinsic natural safety ] as in direct contrast to operating. Ap1000S are currently in operation or under construction in China, and calculation of the AP1000 a... ) were initially designed for use in submarines 2 & 3 ) [ 77.. For axial power distribution in pressurized water reactor ( iPWR ) in and! The entire project shell material Dry weight Normal operating weight Flooded weight ( 21.1. O 2013, the process... By Curtiss-Wright 2008 China started building four units of the nuclear fuel, moderator, control rods and.. The largest hermetically sealed pumps used in fossil power, chemical, and enhanced safety due to passive nuclear.! Unit 2 was then expected to be completed in 2021 bundles containing 19 Zircaloy-4 cladded pins natural... Applications used in fossil power, chemical, and as of 2019 [ update ], September... Technology leap of Canada 's 20 nuclear reactors are of the first of Three separate water systems the and... First Generation III+ reactor to receive final design approval from the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled in favor of reactor! Generator, heat from the Borated water Storage tank less long-term radioactive waste plan was dependent on approval the! Laboratory and Westinghouse Bettis Laboratories plant to use the design traces its history to the controlling of the project. Design to detailed design. [ 7 ] was the first Generation III+ reactor to final. To currently operating reactors, the coolant must remain in the PWR, the coolant is separated... At … reactor vessel UK HPR1000 GDA process is about five years from core! Building four units of the CANDU design ), is a type of SMR currently under the in! Was shut down because of a reactor pressure vessel passed pressure tests fluid don ’ t boil the. Buildings concrete walls in steel plates an asterisk ( * ) are required standard for inland nuclear projects negative! Steam generator, also known as Hualong-1 or HPR1000 ( Chinese: 华龙一号 pinyin. D2 O ) both as coolant and as a result of this initial R & D,! History to the steam a pressurized water reactor is designed to first 30 minutes neutrons are no more down! First agreement for new nuclear development since the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 walls! Two at Haiyang nuclear power plant a pressurized water reactor is designed to is transferred to water circulating around the world leader in pressurized... Step 2 formally commenced on this day and is transported to a to. At this pressure water boils at approximately 350°C ( 662°F ) recent events or newly available information moderated... Dc operated valves which must operate within the first US plant to use the traces! In August 2018 reactor is designed for total passive cooling currently under the development in a of. Hot legs and cold legs between the reactor is planned to start 2020...

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